Mohenjo Daro was built in the 26th century. The name of Mohenjo Daro as “Mound of the Dead Men” in Sindhi language. It was one of the largest city in Indus Valley Civilization and one of the world’s earliest major urban city. It is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan in a central position between two rivers Ghaggar-Hakra River and Indus River.
The city was also known as the Harappan Civilization. The Mohenjo Daro was the most advanced city of its time. Mohenjo Daro was abandoned, when the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE. Mohenjo Daro had no series of city walls, but was fortified with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. The Mohenjo Daro site was further threatened in January 2014. When Bilawal Bhutto Zardari of the Pakistan People’s Party chose the site for Sindh Festival’s inauguration ceremony.
In 1950, Sir Mortimer Wheeler identified one large building in Mohenjo Daro as a “Great Granary”. Certain wall-divisions in its massive wooden superstructure appeared to be grain storage-bays, complete with air-ducts to dry the grain. The Mohenjo Daro had no series of city walls, but was fortified with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. In 1927, a seated male soapstone figure was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche.
Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled Mohenjo Daro, archaeologists dubbed this dignified figure a “Priest-King.”. Sir Mortimer Wheeler was especially fascinated with this artifact, which he believed to be at least 4,500 years old. The pool measures 12 meters (39 ft) long, 7 meters (23 ft) wide and 2.4 meters (7.9 ft) deep. It may have been used for religious purification. Other large buildings include a “Pillared Hall”, thought to be an assembly hall of some kind, and the so-called “College Hall”. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggests a high level of social organization.
The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City. The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R D Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, visited the site in 1919–20. Identifying the Buddhist stupa (150–500 CE) known to be there and finding a flint scraper. Which convinced him of the site’s antiquity.